Programming Languages

Have you ever wondered what each programming language does? We're here to provide some insight.


Hyper Text Markup Language

Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a stylistic formatting language that forms the basis of the majority of content on the World Wide Web. This cornerstone markup language has constantly evolved since its initial release in 1993, and is capable of embedding not only text and graphics, but audio and video. If we think of Web content as a human body, HTML can be thought of as providing the skeletal framework.


Cascading Style Sheets

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a stylistic formatting language that is increasingly becoming the primary page presentation styling language used in Web content today. In our Web content body, CSS would be the outer skin, hair, and clothes.


JavaScript is a high-level multi-paradigm scripting language that is relied upon heavily by dynamic Web content and other environments, like desktop widgets. If HTML is the skeleton and CSS is the outer skin of our Web content body, JavaScript constitutes the muscles, nervous system, and all the internal organs.


JavaScript Library

JQuery is a JavaScript library involved with navigating the document for specific elements to apply formatting, load embedded content, or perform some other procedural call to execute or alter dynamic Web content.


JavaScript Library

AngularJS is a JavaScript library primarily used in client-side Web programming for implementation of model-view-controller (MVC) user-interactive and rich Internet content. The library offers improvements over standard JavaScript in regards to areas like Document Object Model (DOM) manipulation and context awareness.


JavaScript Framework

NodeJS is a runtime environment framework written in JavaScript and designed to optimize throughput and scalability for server-side applications, especially real-time applications, applications that rely heavily on I/O operations, and event-driven asynchronous I/O.


Ruby is a dynamic, multi-paradigm programming language that can port across multiple operating systems, can perform as a functional, object-oriented, or imperative language, and is heavily used in Web-based programming.

Ruby on Rails

Ruby Framework

Ruby on Rails is a Web framework implementation of Rails, a model-view-controller (MVC) framework used for database querying and web servicing, written in the Ruby programming language.


Python is a powerful high-level scripting language portable across all platforms and figures heavily in open source programming. Notable features of Python include its intrepreted nature (meaning it executes code directly line by line rather than compiling and linking source and machine code to check syntax before executing like C, etc.), dynamic type checking, automatic memory management capabilities, and readability.


Hypertext Preprocessor

PHP is a server-side scripting language often used in conjunction with HTML for Web-based programming. PHP can be embedded in HTML, but HTML is a client-side language primarily used for design rendering, whereas PHP performs various read/write processing operations on the web server or database for Web content relying on data that doesn't solely live within the browser.


Perl is a multi-purpose scripting language based heavily on Shell Script and related Unix languages. Perl is notable for its usage in string parsing and regular expressions, and is also used in systems administration, finance, bioinformatics, graphics programming, and network programming.


Java is a versatile programming language heavily influenced by C++ and similar structured languages, but is more class- and object-oriented and typically features more concurrent computing (as opposed to sequential). One of the most popular programming languages, Java is used heavily in client-server Web programming.


C is a high-level structured procedural programming language used heavily in systems programming. One of the most popular programming languages and portable across all operating system platforms, it is the mother language of C++, C#, and Objective-C, and one of the two primary languages used in writing the Linux kernel.


C++ is a widely used general purpose language based on C and influenced heavily by Simula, a class-oriented, object-oriented language family originally intended for use with simulators. In addition to a more object-oriented approach, other features that differentiate C++ from its mother language include automated garbage collection utilities, inheritance, polymorphism, operator overloading, and type-safe memory management.

Objective C

Objective C is an object-oriented daughter language to C that is heavily influenced by SmallTalk, an object-oriented reflective programming language, and is the primary language of Apple's OSX and iOS platforms.


Swift is a multi-paradigm compiled programming language developed by Apple for use on iOS and other Apple products, like Apple Watch and Apple TV. It is considered an improvement over Objective C with regard to certain issues prevalent in Objective C, like null pointer exceptions and callback errors.


Hive is an programming infrastructure based on Hadoop used for data summarization, query, and analysis, making it a common tool used in data mining and warehousing applications.


Hadoop is an open source computing framework used for storing and processing large distributed data sets. Its operation is based on commodity computing, which is considered more cost-effective than utilizing centralized supercomputers, and as such, makes Hadoop heavily used in computing operations on Big Data.


Spark is an implementation of the Ada language used heavily in mission-critical applications. The language addresses certain issues with Ada to emphasize reliability, power, speed, security, bounding of required resources, and consistency. As such, the language is used primarily in safety and security systems, as well as systems to sustain critical business operations.


SQL is a database querying language specialized for use in managing relational database systems and stream processing in relational data stream systems. Well-known extensions of the language include MySQL, NoSQL, PostgreSQL, and PL/SQL.


JSON is a key-value pair data format originally derived from JavaScript but can now be generated and parsed by API code written in multiple languages. JSON is used heavily in Internet media content.


XML, or Extensible Markup Language, is a language used for encoding documents in human-readable and machine-readable formats. Like JSON, APIs can parse and process XML data into valid data used for applications.

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